Based on scatterometry, silicon wafers in the semiconductor industry are quality inspected using laser technology. Specifically, this involves the detection of roughness, defects and particles. Due to the constantly advancing development and especially miniaturization of semiconductor devices, the tolerance for defects in wafers is getting smaller and smaller.
Near zero tolerance has developed with respect to particle contamination, crystal defects, and other known defect types. In addition, there are new types of defects that bring new problems in wafer fabrication. To improve the production yield of compound semiconductors and silicon devices, the study of the wafer surface, non-surface layers and bulk crystal plays an increasingly important role. In addition to analysis by laser radiation, technologies such as electron or X-ray scattering are common.